Chapter 9: Direct Teaching, Lecturing, and Planning

(Jen)

Question: What will we do for 90 minutes?
Response: Choose one of three ways to use the Direct Instruction model.

The Direct Instruction Model (6 steps)

  1. Review previously learned material
    1. May be done in a variety of ways:
    • check homework in pairs/cooperative learning groups
    • play review game
    • quiz
    • puzzle/handout
  2. State objectives for the lesson
    1. Three parts to each objective:
    • describes skill or behavior to be observed
    • describes conditions under which objective will be met
    • states how the students’ success will be evaluated
  3. Present the new material
    1. May be done in a variety of ways:
    • lecture
    • cooperative reading assignment
    • present story of inquiry lesson
    • provide information for class discussion
  4. Provide guided practice with corrective feedback
    1. Suggestions:
    • teacher demonstrates procedures necessary for skills
    • teacher gives students time to practice
    • check consistently for student understanding
  5. Assign independent practice with corrective feedback
    1. students work without guidance of teacher
  6. Review both during and at the end of the lesson
    1. Two kinds of review:
    • formative (takes place throughout lesson)
    • summative (occurs at end of lesson)

Using The Direct Instruction Approach in the Lecture

(same 6 steps throughout)
  1. Review previously learned material
  2. State objectives for the lesson
  3. Present the new material
    1. Lecture-Recitation Cycle
      1. Present new information
      2. Check for comprehension
      3. Monitor student progress
      4. Integrate information with previously learned material
        1. High school students maintain an attention span of 15 - 20 minutes
  4. Provide guided practice
    1. Note-taking guide
  5. Supervise independent practice
    1. Independent activities
      1. Students generate questions
      2. Students engage in problem-solving
      3. Students generate ideas
  6. Review (last chance for teacher to restate most important aspects)
    1. May be done in a variety of ways:
      1. Review Game
      2. Jigsaw II
      3. Teams Games Tournament
      4. Knowledge Checklist (p. 284)
    2. Presenting the talk
      1. A frame of mind
      2. Voice
      3. Eye Contact
      4. Movement (including verbal and nonverbal gestures)
      5. Clarity

Using the Direct Instruction Steps in Planning

  1. Review previously learned material
    1. Should take 5 - 10 minutes
  2. State objectives for the lesson
  3. Present the new material
    1. May be broken into segments no longer than 15 - 20 minute
    2. May be done in a variety of ways:
      1. Lecture
      2. Videos
      3. Movies
      4. Guest speakers
      5. Reading
      6. Research
      7. Brainstorming
      8. Internet
  4. Provide guided practice with corrective feedback
    1. Should identify questions/procedures to be done
    2. Should take 3 - 5 minutes per task
  5. Assign independent practice with corrective feedback
    1. Students working together - transition after 10 - 15 minutes
    2. Students working in groups - may work for longer periods of time
  6. Review both during and at the end of the lesson
    1. Plan 5 - 6 minutes for 3 - 5 minireviews during the lesson
    2. Plan 10 minutes at the end to review the whole lesson

Planning Time Use in the Block with Direct Instruction

  • Review: 5 - 10 minutes
  • State objectives: 3 - 5 minutes
  • Present new material: 15 - 20 minutes
  • Guide practice: 3 sections - 5 minutes each
  • Provide independence practice: 15 - 20 minutes
  • Review:
    • 10 - 15 for review during lesson
    • 5 - 10 minutes at the end
      • TOTAL TIME - 68 - 95 minutes

How to Plan the 90-Minute Lesson

  • One teacher’s schedule
    • 1. Warmup activities - 3 - 5 minutes
    • 2. Only stay 20-25 minutes with same activity
    • 3. Textbook 20-25 minutes
    • 4. Lecture 20-25 minutes
    • 5. Video or other means to present information
    • 6. Use a basic “to know” or a “learning check” - 3-5 minutes once or twice each class period
    • 7. Include paper/pencil work for some time each day
    • 8. Have three different activities/strategies planned each day
  • Another teacher’s schedule
    • 1. Warmup - 10 minutes
    • 2. Review - 10 minutes
    • 3. Objective I - 10 minutes
    • 4. Define - 10 minutes
    • 5. Reinforce - 10 minutes
    • 6. Model - 10 minutes
    • 7. Objective II - 10 minutes
    • 8. Review - 10 minutes

Scaffolding for Higher Order Thinking in Direct Instruction

  • Five step process
    • Identify and then teach the prompt
    • Provide the framework
    • Teacher models
    • Allow students time to practice their new skills
    • Remove some scaffolds

Conclusion

  • Six-step process can serve as an instructional strategy, provide a way to organize a lecture, or guide planning for any lesson in Block